Subjects vs Objects in English


Subjects vs Objects in English

Subjects and objects have the opposite functions in a sentence. The subject is the ‘doer’ of the action. For example, take the sentence “We are watching Netflix.” Here the subject is the pronoun ‘we’. Objects are the opposite; instead of doing something (like watching Netflix), they are acted upon. Now, let’s look at the sentence “The police gave him a warning.” In this case the pronoun “him” is receiving something (a warning), so that’s the object of a sentence.

  • Subject pronouns include I, you, he, she, it, we, they, who, and whoever.
  • Object pronouns are me, you, him, her, it, us, them, whom, and whomever.


Grammar: Subjects in English language explained

Definition of subjects in English language

In English grammar, we use the word ‘subject’ to talk about the person or thing (a noun or pronoun) that does the ‘action.’ Usually, that means that the subject comes before the verb (what are verbs? Grammar 101: Understanding verb tenses). So, the subject of a sentence is the person, place, thing, or idea that is performing the action.

Examples of subjects in the English language 

Simple sentences

Very simple sentences in English have one verb and one subject. For example:

  • Jason works. Here, the subject is “Jason.” The verb is “works.” In this example, Jason is the subject, because he is the person doing the action, “working” in this case.
  • Nick sleeps. Nick is the subject, because he’s doing the action of “sleeping”.

The subject doesn’t always have to be a person/name. Very often it is not, it is a pronoun (for example, he/she/it, etc), or a group of people (we/they). Have a look at the following sentences.

  • I sleep. (The subject is ‘I’ because it’s doing the action of sleeping.)
  • We are watching Netflix. (The subject is ‘we’ because it’s doing the action of watching)
  • They play football. (The subject is ‘they’ because it’s doing the action of playing)
More complicated sentences 

Sometimes a sentence is a bit more complicated and it gets a bit harder to find the subject. Have a look at the following sentences:

  • I am thirsty. (The subject is ‘I’)
  • Mike appears busy. (The subject is ‘Mike’)
  • The employees are in a meeting. (The subject is ‘the employees’)
  • The girl from my class presented an excellent speech at our graduation. (The subject is ‘the girl from my class’ because she’s doing the action)
  • Gemma, Gillian and Mike are having lunch. (The subject is ‘Gemma, Gillian and Mike’ because they’re doing the action of having lunch)


Grammar: Objects in English language explained

Definition of objects in English language

Now that you know what subjects are, let’s have a look at objects. Generally, we use the word ‘object’ to talk about the thing/person that the action is done to. Or, the one who receives the action.

A direct object is a noun or pronoun that receives the action of a verb in a sentence. Usually, it answers the questions what? or whom? about the verb. Choose the direct object(s) in each sentence.

Examples of direct objects in English language

The direct object of a verb is the thing being acted upon. So, it means it is the receiver of the action. Usually, you can find the direct object by finding the verb and asking “what?” or “whom?”. For example:

  • Mike loves doughnuts. (Mike loves what? The object is ‘doughnuts’.)
  • James got his IELTS scores yesterday. (James got what? The object is ‘his IELTS scores’.)
  • I put the orange cat out in the garden. (I put what (out in the garden)? The object is ‘the orange cat’.)

Examples of indirect objects in English language

Apart from direct objects, there are also indirect objects. An indirect object is the recipient of the direct object. How do you find an indirect object in a sentence? You can find the indirect object by first finding the direct object. Then, ask “who” or “what” received it. The indirect object will chronologically exist before the direct object in a sentence. Have a look at the example sentences below. We have put the direct objects in bold and underlined the indirect objects.

Can you give Tomoko the keys?

  1. Find the direct object: Give what? the keys
  2. Find the indirect object: Who (or what) received the keys? Tomoko

The bartender made Gracie an ice-cold drink.

  1. Find the direct object: The bartender made what? An ice-cold drink
  2. The bartender made a cold drink for whom? Gracie

Examples of the object of a preposition in English language

It gets a little trickier now. We call the noun or pronoun after a preposition the object of a preposition. When you know the direct object, finding an indirect object is fairly simple. Remember, you find a direct object by asking “what?” or “whom?” the verb is doing. Then, to find an indirect object, ask “to whom/what?” or “for whom/what” the direct object is intended. Have a look at the example sentences below. We have put the prepositions in bold and underlined the objects of prepositions.

  • Emily is from Ireland.
  • You can tell from her accent that Emily is from Ireland.

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